10 Best Ways to Avoid Bugs in Programming

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In this article, we will discuss some common mistakes made not only by novice programmers but also by experienced developers. Some of them may lead to major IT disasters, data theft, and hacking of large sites. Therefore, the next time you write a program, take a look at this list and make sure that you have not made this kind of problem. Also, we will discuss how to avoid these mistakes. And remember that you can avoid bugs in coding by ordering programming homework help from AssignmentCore professional service, so do not hesitate to visit their website for hiring experts online.

Buffer overflow

It is one of the most dangerous mistakes. Thanks to it, Morris and Nimda worms were born, which in total infected several billion computers. The essence of the error is simple: due to incorrect calculation of write positions in the memory, a user can enter data outside the buffer. In the best case, this will lead to an error. But potentially, it can lead to the fact that the hacker adds malicious inserts to the executable code.

SQL injection

An SQL injection is a hacker attack that allows them to access the database directly. Using a simple concatenation of SQL commands, attackers read databases, delete and add data, and establish their own links. The key reason for successful attacks is software that processes user input and sends it to an SQL query, but does not provide the necessary level of security.

OS command injections

Some software uses built-in operating system commands, for example, to retrieve computer data or launch an application. In this case, an infusion of commands from your OS may occur. Without proper verification of the entered data, an attacker can get into your computer, change file permissions, install an application, steal data, or delete something important.

Numeric Type Overflow

Any programming language has its limits. For example, in a 2-byte unsigned number, you can write a maximum of 65535. Now imagine that you need to add 65530 and 20. The result of 65555 does not fit into the short type. And at the output, you get an unpredictable value. Thus, further work with this variable will lead to a deliberately incorrect result.

Incorrect Array Size Estimate

There is a stereotype that access errors to a nonexistent array index are possible only in C or C ++ since manual memory management is used there. However, in Java, Python, JavaScript, and other automatic languages, such miscalculations of the developer are not uncommon. If the array index is incorrectly evaluated, the user gains access to unused memory cells. This, in turn, leads to critical errors in the program.

Use of Resources Without Limits

Without checks and restrictions, distribution fails, and some data occupies a space that is potentially intended for others. As a result, an error occurs, or you get a program that will steal the entire memory of the machine during work.

This type of error can also include the creation of dimensionless arrays, streams, the use of file descriptors, or connections in the database without checking and closing.

Pointer to Freed Memory

In languages ​​like C and C ++, memory should be freed as soon as you finish working with it. Further use of pointers to this memory block leads to errors. Despite the obviousness of what has been described, cases of freezing of large software systems due to this failure pop up again and again.

Null Pointer Output

The pointer is null before initialization. Working with it leads to an error. For example, in Java, this is a NullPointerException. Although a mistake is elementary to avoid, it is still very common, so we had to write about it in this rating.

The Lack of Initialization

Local variables exist only inside a function or a small block, so sometimes programmers ignore their normal initialization. Meanwhile, if the assignment of the starting value is left to the software, instead of the expected zero or empty character, you can see a Missing Initialization error.

Risky Algorithms

When working with personal data, it is necessary to protect it reliably. Do not rely on your strength because there are many ready-made software and algorithms that work much better than your brain. However, even their use must be approached wisely. Since the SHA-1 hash algorithm is outdated and is easily cracked by modern hackers, you should prefer SHA-2 or SHA-3. Otherwise, you risk not only the reputation of your software but also quite real money.


As you can see, in most cases, the causes of bugs and vulnerabilities are the usual inattention to details and reluctance to test the code again. Be careful, and do not forget about your favorite mistakes and examples from our rating. With this approach, your code will work as intended!

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